Many articles have been written about various types of phytogenic molecules present in various plant extracts, but we have seen very few articles related to these interesting molecules present in natural remedies used in humans, such as bee propolis.
We are referring to α- and β-pinenes, representatives of the monoterpenes group with high level of concentration in pine and spruce extracts, as Picea Mariana.
A wide range of pharmacological activities have been reported, such as modulation of antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoal and analgesic effects. For instance, in a recent article from 2020 has been reported how α-Pinene reduces Campylobacter jejuni colonization in broiler chickens.
This article aims to summarize the most prominent effects of α- and β-pinene and at the end we will discuss bioavailability, because virtually every good antioxidant is very sensitive to the environment, feed processing or the digestion process itself.
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